Danish Ring Fortress

The site of an ancient Danish ring fortress has been found near Koge. Danish archaeologists led by Dr. Nanna Holm and assisted by researchers at the University of York, used gradiometry to discover the 475 foot diameter fort. Gradiometry measures variations in earth’s magnetism. The exact date of the fort is still unknown, but it is believed to contemporary with King Harald I Bluetooth or Sweyn Forkbeard, the first Danish King of England.

Viking Ring Fort at Trelleborg

Viking Ring Fort at Trelleborg

Though the excavation is very preliminary, archaeologists have already discovered evidence of fighting at the site. Charred oak posts near one “entrance” indicate that the gate was burned down. Dendrochronological analysis should be able to determine the age of the gates.

Gradiometry image of fort

Gradiometry image of fort

This is the first Fyrkat fortress discovered in Denmark in more than 60 years.

  1. Viking ‘ring fortress’ discovered in Denmark“, The Telegraph, 2014-09-06
  2. Danish Archaelogists Find Viking Age Ring Fortress“, PastHorizons: Adventures in Archaeology, 2014-09-07
  3. Viking ‘ring fortress’ discovered in Denmark may have been used to launch invasion of England in 1013“, National Post, 2014-09-07
  4. New Viking Ring Fortress Discovered in Denmark“, Sci-News.com, 2014-09-08
  5. 1,000-Year-Old Viking Fortress Unearthed in Denmark“, Huffington Post, 2014-09-09


Dr. George Walkden, of the University of Manchester, claims that the opening line of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf has been misinterpreted since its first publication in 1815. His claim, based on the position of the word hwæt relative to its verb in 141 other clauses, suggests that the line “Hwæt! We Gar-Dena in gear-dagum, þeod-cyninga,  þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas  ellen fremedon!” should be read as: “How we have heard of the might of the kings” rather than the traditional interpretation: “Listen! We have heard of the might of the kings.”

Opening word of Beowulf

Opening word of Beowulf

The difference may seem minor, but Dr. Walkden argues that it completely changes the tone of the poem. Whereas “Listen!” implies that there’s a reason to call an unruly audience to attention, the less exclamatory interpretation implies that the audience is more willing to hear the story. It is unclear whether this latest interpretation will be used in future translations. The original interpretation is more evocative of dark and heavy wooden meeting halls, packed with warrior thegns and long tables of food and drink.

  1. Listen! Beowulf opening line misinterpreted for 200 years“, The Independent, 05 Nov 2013

ISO Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great died in 899 and subsequently interred in Winchester Cathedral. He is believed to have been moved outside of the city in 1110, along with his wife Ealhswith, by Benedictine monks to their new minster at Hyde Abbey. When the monastery was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1539, its treasures were destroyed or dispersed, but the bones of Alfred and his family remained. In 1788, convicts built a prison on the site, found the grave, stole lead from the coffin, and scattered the bones. Could this be the last chapter of the greatest Anglo-Saxon king?


After years of research, an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St. Bartholomew’s in Winchester is believed to be the last resting place of Alfred the Great (or at least a piece of him).  Before the 12th century, only royals and monks were permitted to be buried at the St. Bartholomew’s. The diocese exhumed the remains, fearing that grave robbers might disturb them. There has been great interest in royal burials since the discovery of Richard III’s body under a Leicester parking lot in 2012.

University of Winchester archaeologists received permission from the diocese to examine the collection of skulls and bones from the churchyard. They hope to sort out the sex and ages of those remains. DNA testing would require finding a living relative of the 9th century king.

  1.  Grave of ‘Alfred the Great’ Winchester church exhumed“, BBC News, Hampshire & Isle of Wight, 2013-03-26
  2. Unmarked grave dug up in hunt for England’s King Alfred the Great“, CNN, 2013-03-27
  3. Search for a Saxon king: Archaeologists hope to find Alfred the Great in an unmarked grave in Winchester“, MailOnline, 2013-08-09
  4. Alfred The Great Remains Found? Researchers Analyze Bones In Search Of Ninth-Century Monarch“, Huffington Post, 2013-08-13
  5. Hyde900

Ring of Escrick

This ring was unearthed in 2009 by a metal detectorist in Escrick, Yorkshire. Though originally believed to be much later, the ring is now believed to have been made in the 5th to 6th centuries. A workshop in York suggested that the ring had continental origins and probably belonged to a king or royal consort.

escrick ring

The ring is composed of gold, glass, and sapphire. It was purchased for £35,000 by the Yorkshire Museum. The main part of the ring may have belonged to a brooch or other ornament before being mounted to the hoop. It is possible that the sapphire has Roman origins and that the mount was created much later. Further investigation of the ring is planned.

  1. Escrick sapphire ring’s mystery history sparks meeting“, BBC News, 25 Jan 2013
  2. Escrick sapphire ring’s mystery history sparks meeting“, Archaelogical News, 29 Jan 2013
  3. The Ring is Royal?“, Yorkshire Museum, 20 Mar 2013

Pagan Hall of Lyminge

The foundations of a large Anglo-Saxon hall was discovered beneath a village green in Kent. The green has remained undeveloped for over 1,000 years. The feasting hall measured 69 by 28 feet. The foundation consisted of post holes and plank gaps.

Aerial View

Artifacts and animal bones uncovered at the site have dated the hall as late 6th or early 7th century. Dr. Gabor Thomas explained that the hall was a symbol of local wealth and status. The kings of the era did not collect taxes and so moved from place to place, living off the bounty and offerings of their subjects.

Harness Mount

Among the items found were a decorative gilt horse harness mount (above) and bone combs (below). Archaeologists intend to further investigate the site in the future.

Bone Comb

  1. Saxon find in Lyminge has historians partying like it’s 599“, TheGuardian, 2012-10-30
  2. Archaeologists unearth 1,300-year-old Anglo Saxon feasting hall inches below village green in first major find of its kind in 30 years“, MailOnline, 2012-10-30
  3. Archaeologists reveal rare Anglo-Saxon feasting hall”, University of Reading“, 2012-10-31
  4. Anglo-Saxon hall found in Kent is ‘tip of the iceberg’“, The Telegraph, 2012-10-31
  5. Lyminge Archaeological Project

A Second Staffordshire Hoard

In 2009, a hoard of Anglo-Saxon relics were found in a 5-hectare Staffordshire field at Hammerwich. Within recent weeks, 90 more relics were unearthed including what may be part of a helmet and an assortment of much smaller fragments, many that weigh less than a gram.

Helmet Piece

The newest additions increase the total sum of gold, silver, and copper objects found at the site to nearly 4,000. The objects appear to be 7th century, though it is not known when they were buried. The date places the hoard in the Kingdom of Mercia.


The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest collection of Anglo-Saxon metalwork ever found. It includes over 5kg of gold, 1.5kg of silver, and thousands of garnets.

  1. Archeologists reveal golden helmet and 90 Anglo-Saxon treasures in stunning SECOND find in a Staffordshire field“, MailOnline, 2012-09-18
  2. Staffordshire Hoard: Gold fragments found in Hammerwich“, BBC News, Stoke & Staffordshire, 2012-12-18
  3. Staffordshire Hoard: Bid to keep Anglo-Saxon treasure“, BBC News, Stoke & Staddforshire, 2013-04-30
  4. Staffordshire Hoard, Official Site
  5. Staffordshire Hoard, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery
  6. Staffordshire Hoard, Flickr

Warriors of Salisbury Plain

Operation Nightingale was a tehabilitation project for soldiers returning from Afghanistan, headed by the Defence Infrastructure Organization (DIO) and the Army. In 2012,  soldiers involved in the project uncovered the 1,400 year old remains of Anglo-Saxon soldiers at Barrow Clump. One of the skeletons was found with a spearhead and a wooden cup bound in bronze. Another was found with a shield over its face.

Skull and cup

Trial trenches revealed twelve graves containing thirteen individuals. Grave objects included copper-alloy brooches, brushes, and iron knives, buckles, spearheads, and a shield boss.

Barrow Clump

Experts believe the site was once a cemetery. Excavations were undertaken because the area was being damaged by burrowing badgers. Work at the barrow is believed to take three years, with the first year being devoted to the Anglo-Saxon burials. Neolithic finds are also expected at the site.

  1. Soldiers injured in Afghanistan make surprise find on UK archaeology dig“, The Guardian, 2012-08-06
  2. 2012 Excavations“, Wessex Archaeology Online, 2012
  3. Operation Nightingale / Project Florence“, Wessex Archaeology Online, 2013-08-13
  4. Salisbury Plain Excavations“, Wessex Archaeology Online

Girl with the Garnet Cross

The grave of a sixteen year old girl was found at Trumpington Meadows near Cambridge. Her 1,400 year old grave contained a knife, glass beads, and a gold and garnet cross, making this one of the earliest Christian burials in England.

Saxon Teenager

Skeleton of the young woman

Dr. Sam Lewsey, an expert on Anglo-Saxon burials, stated that the knife and glass beads were evidence of pagan burial rituals, placing the grave firmly with the transitional period. The girl was given a bed burial, a practice where nobles were laid on a frame of wood and metal, topped with straw. Bed burials disappeared after the 7th century.

Garnet Cross

Garnet cross, front and back

  1.  “Is this Britain’s first Christian burial? Anglo Saxon grave reveals 16-year-old girl laid to rest with a gold cross“, MailOnline, 2012-03-15
  2. Collingbourne Ducis, Wiltshire: an Early Saxon cemetery with bed burial“, N. Stoodley, J. Schuster

Mercenary Remains in Oxford

A group of 37 men, aged 16 to 37, were found at St. John’s College in Oxford. Testing of the remains have shown that the men had strong frames, were from different places, and had diets consisting in large part on seafood. This has lead some to believe that they were Viking raiders. The men were not given a formal burial, but were instead interred in a mass grave.

Dane Skull

There are many hypotheses about the men’s identities and deaths. Prof. Mark Pollard of Oxford University’s School of Archaeology believes the men were caught and killed in retaliation for the St. Brice’s Day Massacre. The massacre, ordered by King Æthelred the Unready on 13 Nov 1002, sought to eradicate all Danes from England. Carl Falys of the Thames Valley Archaeological Services, claimed that the men appear to have been attacked from all sides. Tom Hassell, former director of Oxford Archaeology suggested that the men may have been killed following the massacre, when Oxford was attacked in revenge.

The Danish king, Sweyn Forkbeard, took Oxford in 1009. The remains may have been part of that conflict as well.

  1. Oxford Viking massacre revealed by skeleton find“, BBC News, 12 Aug 2011
  2. There’s no bones about THIS history“, Oxford Mail, 04 Apr 2013
  3. St. Brice’s Day massacre“, Wikipedia


I recently found an interesting (albeit long-winded) article that discusses the Germanization of post-Roman Britain. It doesn’t go into many details of the German invasion, but does discuss possible mechanisms by which the culture and religion of the population were changed within a century. The mechanisms that Khan discusses are “elite emulation” and “population replacement”. He then explores examples where those mechanisms didn’t occur as expected.

Hengest & Horsa arrive in England

Hengest & Horsa arrive in England

After a wide-ranging discussion that jumps between Turkish history, the assimilation of African blacks in colonial America, the Islamicization of North Africa and the Middle East, and even the Iberian / Italian conquest of South America, the author returns to the subject of Anglo-Saxon England for the last half of the article. He suggests the German invaders may have been a very organized warrior society, of whom some of which may have served under Theodoric the Ostrogoth before his power collapsed in 6th century Italy. He also suggests that the warrior invaders probably brought women with them, because this would have cemented German culture and paganism in a way that intermarriage with indigene women would not. Khan writes that the change seen in Britain occurred much faster than in other regions, implying that the invasion was swift, thorough, and widespread throughout much of Britain.

  1. Celts to Anglo-Saxons, in light of updated assumptions“, Razib Khan, Discover Blogs, 2011-06-23